From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For the IMAX film, see Deep Sea 3D. Deep sea zones
The deep sea or deep layer is the lowest layer in the ocean, existing below the thermocline and above the seabed, at a depth of 1000 fathoms (1800 m) or more. Little or no light penetrates this part of the ocean, and most of the organisms that live there rely for subsistence on falling organic matter produced in the photic zone. For this reason, scientists once assumed that life would be sparse in the deep ocean, but virtually every probe has revealed that, on the contrary, life is abundant in the deep ocean.
From the time of Pliny until the late nineteenth century…humans believed there was no life in the deep. It took a historic expedition in the ship Challenger between 1872 and 1876 to prove Pliny wrong; its deep-sea dredges and trawls brought up living things from all depths that could be reached. Yet even in the twentieth century scientists continued to imagine that life at great depth was insubstantial, or somehow inconsequential. The eternal dark, the almost inconceivable pressure, and the extreme cold that exist below one thousand meters were, they thought, so forbidding as to have all but extinguished life. The reverse is in fact true….(Below 200 meters) lies the largest habitat on earth.
In 1960, the Bathyscaphe Trieste descended to the bottom of the Mariana Trench near Guam, at 10, 911 m (35, 797 ft; 6.780 mi), the deepest known spot in any ocean. If Mount Everest (8, 848 metres) were submerged there, its peak would be more than a mile beneath the surface. The Trieste was retired, and for a while the Japanese remote-operated vehicle (ROV) Kaikō was the only vessel capable of reaching this depth. It was lost at sea in 2003. In May and June 2009, the hybrid-ROV (HROV) Nereus returned to the Challenger Deep for a series of three dives to depths exceeding 10900 meters.
It has been suggested that more is known about the Moon than the deepest parts of the ocean. Little was known about the extent of life on the deep ocean floor until the discovery of thriving colonies of shrimps and other organisms around hydrothermal vents in the late 1970s. Before the discovery of the undersea vents, it had been accepted that almost all life on earth obtained its energy (one way or another) from the sun. The new discoveries revealed groups of creatures that obtained nutrients and energy directly from thermal sources and chemical reactions associated with changes to mineral deposits. These organisms thrive in completely lightless and anaerobic environments in highly saline water that may reach 300 °F (150 °C), drawing their sustenance from hydrogen sulfide, which is highly toxic to almost all terrestrial life. The revolutionary discovery that life can exist under these extreme conditions changed opinions about the chances of there being life elsewhere in the universe. Scientists now speculate that Europa, one of Jupiter’s moons, may be able to support life beneath its icy surface, where there is evidence of a global ocean of liquid water.
The proof for fast climate modification is compelling:
International temperature increase
The planet ‘s ordinary surface area temperature has risen regarding 2.0 levels Fahrenheit (1.1 levels Celsius) given that the late 19th century, a modification driven largely by boosted co2 as well as other human-made exhausts right into the atmosphere.5 A lot of the warming occurred in the past 35 years, with 16 of the 17 hottest years on record taking place since 2001. Not just was 2016 the warmest year on document, however 8 of the YEAR that comprise the year– from January via September, with the exemption of June– were the hottest on document for those respective months. 6 + more Planet’s vital indications: Global temperature level A sign of current global standard temperature as measured by NASA; updated monthly. International Environment Modification: Causes An introduction of the pollution as well as other contributors to sudden climate change. Graphic: Global warming up from 1880 to 2015 A visualization of worldwide temperature level changes because 1880 based on NASA GISS data
Warming up seas
The seas have soaked up a lot of this enhanced warm, with the leading 700 meters (concerning 2, 300 feet) of ocean showing warming of 0.302 levels Fahrenheit given that 1969.7 + more Environment Children: Just what is happening in the sea? A summary of the sea’s duty in environment adjustment as well as just how it stores as well as launches warmth from the ambience. Video clip: Seas of climate change An easy going take a look at the effect of environment adjustment on the globe’s oceans as well as the heat capacity of water. Write-up: Warming ocean causing most Antarctic ice shelf mass loss Sea waters melting the undersides of Antarctic ice shelves are responsible for the majority of the continent ‘s ice rack mass loss, a brand-new research by NASA and also college researchers has actually discovered.
Reducing ice sheets
The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have actually reduced in mass. Information from NASA ‘s Gravity Healing as well as Climate Experiment reveal Greenland lost 150 to 250 cubic kilometers (36 to 60 cubic miles) of ice annually in between 2002 and also 2006, while Antarctica shed regarding 152 cubic kilometers (36 cubic miles) of ice in between 2002 and also 2005.
Satellite monitorings disclose that the amount of springtime snow cover in the North Hemisphere has reduced over the past five years and also that the snow is melting earlier.15 + even more National Snow and also Ice Data Center As an info as well as reference facility in support of polar and also cryospheric research study, NSIDC archives as well as distributes electronic and also analog snow, ice, as well as Planet Observatory: Snow Cover Time series of worldwide snow cover from NASA ‘s Planet Observatory.
Sea degree increase
International water level rose regarding 8 inches in the last century The rate in the last 20 years, nevertheless, is nearly double that of the last century.
The number of document high temperature level occasions in the United States has been boosting, while the number of document reduced temperature occasions has actually been decreasing, since 1950. The United States has additionally seen raising numbers of extreme rains occasions.10 + more Precipitation Dimension Missions The main web site for NASA ‘s fleet of Planet science objectives that examine rainfall and various other kinds rainfall around the world. Rainfall Test Earth’s water is stored in ice as well as snow, lakes and also rivers, the atmosphere as well as the seas. What does it cost? do you understand about exactly how water is cycled around our world and the important function it plays in our environment?
Considering that the start of the Industrial Revolution, the acidity of surface area ocean waters has actually increased by about 30 percent.11, 12 This boost is the result of people releasing even more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and also for this reason extra being absorbed into the seas. The quantity of co2 taken in by the top layer of the oceans is boosting by concerning 2 billion heaps each year.13, 14 + even more Exactly how does climate change impact coral reefs? Short article concerning exactly how worldwide warming leads to reefs whitening as well as modifications ocean chemistry, causing acidification. The Other Co2 Problem NOAA web page on sea acidification.
Welcome to TemperatureConversions.Org where you can easily convert temperature with this handy Temperature Converter:
Plug in your temperature, choose temperature scales and convert!
Quickly convert temperature!
Welcome to TemperatureConversions.Org where you can easily convert temperature with this handy Temperature Converter:
Plug in your temperature, choose temperature scales and convert!
This tool allows you to convert temperature across four main temperature scales: Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin, and Rankine. The online temperature conversion calculator uses standard temperature conversion formulas to calculate the results. The converted temperature results can be trusted for educational, scientific and personal uses.
Formulas used for Temperature Conversion:
Fahrenheit = Celsius * 9 / 5 + 32
Kelvin = Celsius + 273.15
Rankine = Fahrenheit + 459.6
Please show us your support for TemperatureConversions.Org project by providing a link from your website and referencing it in any way you feel appropriate. By helping us spread the word about the temperature conversion project, you help us keep temperature conversion project going enabling us to add more temperature scales to the converter.
There is a remarkable connection between Astrology and Palmistry. Astrology is all about the “the twelve houses” of the seven main planets encapsulated in the mystical theories of astrology. While palmistry is equally seen as an expression in our palms of the influences of the Zodiac.
For me, astrology is inspiring for the greater connection with the self and the cosmos it gives me. In these ever-changing, express-train, ever more frantically media-networking lives, we miss the tranquility of the ancients. The secret of astrology and palmistry lies in the many ways it allows followers to feel a sense of kinship and empathy with those mystic forces that go so far beyond what with our meager technology we can possibly ever hope to comprehend.
The Link Between Palmistry and Astrology
In palmistry, the signs of the zodiac, the sun, the moon, and the planets are all allocated their own points on the hand. The shape of the hands is the first aspect to consider for a palmist. That’s where palmistry detects strong indications of each person’s unique physical and artistic proclivities.
Top mystics in ancient times must have been ell versed in matters of astrology, numerology, graphology, and palmistry. They would rapidly analyze the people who came to them. By doing so they would pick up the vibes which would bring them to know their sitter’s future. Just as at one time in the west there was much skepticism over the use of pressure points on the hands, feet, and at times also the face, to diagnose and treat muscular problems. And, as in those times this was shown to be a true method, so it will again one day when science realises the error it has made in judging astrology and palmistry to be pseudoscience.
Many also are certain those techniques can also cure developing problems with the body’s main organs. There is a case for believing that research studies on palm reading will eventually show that it can be used as a valuable tool to diagnose and analyze the physical and mental health of people.
Ayurvedic Astrology and Palmistry: The influence of the Stars In the Palm of Your Hands
There is a definite link between palmistry and astrology, and it is in the belief that the stars’ influence is very strong indeed. The Zodiac at the time of birth not only can but does leave its imprint. Experts in palmistry can see it not only in the person’s face, and body. But, as astrologers have known for centuries, it also exhibits itself in traits of character. Palmists see that same influence in the shape of the hand, the lines on the palm, and elsewhere.
Palmistry involves learning about your personality through visual clues seen in your palm mostly. From those indications they move into the future, predicting the sitter’s fortune. In recent years specialist colleges have begun to formalize he science. This has enabled training in astrology and palmistry with colleges now offering diplomas in these subjects. Course are available that will teach you the art of palm and hand reading. The intetion is that each student will become a fully certified palm reader.
Some horoscope readers now use both astrology and palmistry in their sittings. The benefit is the that they say that the stars tend to show a person’s potential and the current situation, and their hands show how individuals will react and adapt to the resulting life’s ups and downs.
Astrology and Palmistry Around the World
Astrology and palmistry are being used more and more to find out the astrological reasons for ailments, and this can also lead to finding remedies for problems. The fields of your life covered with a top Indian Vedic astrology reading can range the full scope of physical and mental problems. You will find that devotees particularly like the unique ability to obtain guidance for future events of their lives.
As you would expect for methods which have been used for thousands of year, the Indian Vedic practitioners are just one manifestation of different systems of palmistry which can be found in many cultures all over the world. Those most written about include the palmistry methods in Romani culture, in Hindu/ Vedic astrology, as well as Chinese spiritual practices.
The Institute of Vedic astrology is said by many to be the most trusted and reliable institute for those interested in learning palmistry. When we looked recently, this is the one and only institute providing comprehensive course content for the novice.
Palmistry was practiced in a long list of ancient kingdoms. These include India, China, Persia, Nepal, Tibet, Sumeria, Israel, and Babylonia. Its first origins lie so far back in time that certainty will probably never be attained, but it is said to have its first roots in Hindu astrology, more than 5,000 years ago
Palm Reading Secrets
Even to a novice, every hand is very different. Unique features on every hand are said to define the relationships between your fingers. That information provides the expert eye of the palmist unique information about you. In his book Palmist Robin Gile wrote:
“If your Jupiter (index) finger reaches past the bottom of Saturn’s nail (what is called a Napoleonic Jupiter) your sitter probably has a high ego.”
Astrology and palmistry are two different branches of occult science. Astrology deals with the various information of that person. The corresponding information is related to the date of birth, birthplace and birth timing.
Although palmistry, like astrology, numerology, and many other predictive crafts are mostly regarded as pseudosciences and even complete shams by the academic community, these ancient arts still hold a following.
The Fascinating Craft of Astrology and Palmistry
Our palms contain an in-built horoscope. Some people who are experts in astrology and palmistry will build a horoscope of a person from the lines of the palm.
Astrology today, with the many terms used, was inherited from the ancient religions of Greece and Rome. The symbolic framework for classical western palmistry comes from the dame origins. Each area of the palm and fingers is related to one of the greek or roman planetary gods or goddess, such as apollo, venus, or luna, and the features found on that area of the palm indicate the nature of the corresponding aspect of the subject.
Astrology and palmistry today hold a great fascination for the general people. A palmistry course is the best way to acquire the basic ideas about how the astrologer works with blocks to read. Astrology and palmistry purport to predict the near future. Palmists focus on the major line of the hand, the thumb, fingers, major mounts, and the different signs expressed within the palm.
Astrology and Palm Reading Interconnection
Palmistry and astrology are interconnected and they have parts supporting each other. The ancient Chinese adopted an elaborate and intricate system of astrology that is connected to the mystical beliefs of ancient populations.
Palmistry has roots back to Indian (Hindu) Astrology (known in Sanskrit as Jyotish) and Roma (gypsy) fortune-tellers. The Hindu sage Valmiki is thought to have written a book, whose title translates in English as “the teachings of Valmiki Maharshi on Male Palmistry”, comprising 567 stanzas.
Where astrology and palmistry are similar
Palmistry has been traced back several thousand years to pre-Vedic India. It is a practice known as scientific palmistry, which focuses on the interpretation of the lines and structures in the hand.
Going back 200 years, each finger and mound were once thought to correspond to an individual planet. Palmistry and astrology were so close a discipline that the association of the two was not broken until halfway into the 19th century. Palmistry symbolism was already well developed by then.
Palmistry is divination. There are other examples of these, such as tarot cards, faery stones, lithomancy (stones), crystal ball (scrying), runes, bones, dream interpretation, tasseography (reading tea leaves). Not to mention astrology, and palmistry, to name the originals, and aid can at times be given to folks in finding their totem animals.
What Very Few People Know About Astrology and Palmistry
Palm reading has been (and still is) a predominantly Asian and oriental skill. Knowledge has only in relatively recent times been analyzed and written down.
It is also said of Greek astrology, that it was the Greek scholar Anaxagoras, who while traveling around the Indian sub-continent was taught about palmistry. The suggestion is that he later shared what he knew with Hermes.
With ever increasing numbers of obese or morbidly obese people in the world today, it’s somewhat comforting to know that there are solutions that can speed up the process of weight loss. While diet and exercise are efficient methods of improving your health, for many people who are suffering from the serious medical complications of being overweight, it simply takes too long, they need help and they need it fast. Gastric bypass surgery can be the answer for many people. If you are considering this type of surgery, you’ll likely want to know more about it, such as learning more about gastric bypass recovery.
The actual time you spend in the hospital after the surgery can vary greatly from one person to the next and what type of procedure you had performed. For example, for someone who has the minimally invasive laparoscopic procedure the average post op hospital stay will be between 3 – 5 days assuming you don’t have any complications. If, on the other hand, you have the somewhat more involved open gastric bypass procedure you will have a larger incision and will require a slightly longer hospital stay, generally between 5 – 7 days, again, assuming you have no complications.
Consult your surgeon about dites sheets
Your surgeon will be able to provide you with more specifics based on your situation and your overall health and the exact type of procedure you are having. As to recovery after the surgery, there will also be a fairly involved process which will include significant lifestyle changes, in particular the types and amounts of food that you eat. It’s important to understand that this procedure will make your stomach about the size of a walnut, and that will greatly reduce the amount of food and drink you will be able to consume at one time.
That change will be permanent so the days of having a huge feast are over, or at least you’ll have to spread the meal out over several hours. Most people will continue to lose weight up to 2 years after the procedure, and weight loss of up to 80% of your excess body weight is not uncommon. It’s not likely that you’ll lose 100% of your excess weight but losing the majority of it is still a great start for most people.
Losing weight at such a rapid pace can have virtually immediate impact on other obesity related issues such as diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Another benefit, after your recovery period, should be an overall lessening of many aches and pains and increased mobility. Just being able to move around more comfortably can have a dramatic effect on your health as well as your overall disposition.
For many people, gastric surgery really is a matter of life and death. While it is possible to lose weight the ‘old fashioned’ way, for people with serious and potentially life threatening health issues time is of the essence and this surgery can help them lose weight much faster than they would normally be able to do. Just make sure that when you’re considering surgery, you pay close attention to the gastric bypass recovery time and carefully follow all of your doctors advice.
Celebrities and high-ranking political officials make a concerted effort to craft their reputation shouldn’t you? Everything from the way they dress, to the words that they use, the things they do, the places they are seen, and the people they associate with are all orchestrated to build their reputation.
A Good Reputation is Difficult to Attain
A good reputation is difficult and time consuming to build. Once established, it must be maintained and can be used as currency to open doors of opportunities for yourself and others. Unfortunately, your reputation can be easily destroyed and once tarnished it is near impossible to rebuild back to its original status.
Although you cannot control everything that is said about you, there are a few decisions you need to make to manage your reputation. What kind of reputation do you aspire to have? Think in descriptive words- dependable, honest, diplomatic, polished, etc. Then consider what actions you must take on a regular basis to become that descriptive word.
Know Your Current Reputation
TIP! To bolster your reputation, follow up to make sure customers are satisfied. If your business is large, this is very true.
Know the reputation you currently have. Are you known as a go-getter, a gossip, a problem solver, a whiner, a slacker, or a kiss up? What do you do on a regular basis to maintain or discredit this opinion of you? How do you see yourself? If you do not like your reputation, begin the process to make some changes.
Start by reviewing your existing reputation. What are people saying about you? You need to monitor social mentions of your name, company name, and major projects. Be a person of your word. It’s not what you say; it’s what you actually do. Your actions speak louder than your words and people form opinions about you based on how you act or react.
You Earn Your Reputation Over Time
Your reputation is being built when you do simple things– such as, return a call/email in a timely fashion, write a piece of correspondence, make a presentation, when you make and keep a promise, the attitude you display on a daily basis, the clothing you wear and how you interact with others. Be conscious of your daily activities and how they impact your reputation.
The key to building and managing your reputation is consistency. If your goal is to be known as a polished professional then you must be consistent and dress the part everyday until those around you automatically associate you with being well dressed and then you must sustain that image.
Some say to remove any visible discharge or earwax using cotton wool. Hold the bottle in your hand to warm it – cold ear drops can make you feel dizzy. Lie on your side with the affected ear facing up to put the drops in. Gently pull and push your ear to work the drops in. Stay lying down for 5 minutes so the drops don’t come out.
Other, smarter people, say that you should not endanger your hearing by using home remedies. Get seen by trained professionals at your nearest Audiology Clinic, making sure they use the latest microsuction earwax removal system. Totally painless, totally safe.
How does the doctor clean out your ears?
If wax buildup is the issue, your doctor will perform the irrigation in their office using a syringe-like tool. This tool will be used to insert water or a water and saline mixture into the ear to flush out the wax. You may feel slight discomfort from the water in your ear or from holding your ear in place. At least the old-school does.
These days the safest and totally painless way to do it is to get microsuction earwax removal treatment at your local Audiology Clinic. No discomfort, no messy fluids swishing around in your ear canal. Just peace of mind that you have just had the best treatment for earwax removal.
Can hydrogen peroxide hurt your ears?
Hydrogen peroxide, although a common household substance, is highly oxidizing in nature. People may insert it into their ears to soften earwax so that it can drain out. However, excessive use of hydrogen peroxide can lead to irritation of the skin inside the ear, which may cause inflammation and earaches. Rather than take this risk, you should be seen for microsuction earwax removal treatment at your local Audiology Clinic.
How do you remove stubborn ear wax at home?
If your eardrum doesn’t contain a tube or have a hole in it, these self-care measures may help you remove excess earwax that’s blocking your ear canal: Soften the wax. Use an eyedropper to apply a few drops of baby oil, mineral oil, glycerin or hydrogen peroxide in your ear canal. Use warm water.
Preferably you’ll go to your local Audiology Clinic specializing in microsuction earwax removal.
Why is my earwax hard?
Dead skin and other debris combine with secretions from sebaceous and modified sweat glands to create earwax. Earwax that picks up a lot of debris or sits in the ear canal for a long time can get hard and dry, so it’s more likely to cause a blockage. Instead you need to be treated by trained professionals at your nearest Audiology Clinic that uses only microsuction earwax removal. It’s the only safe way to know you’ve done it right.
Love wine but never had the nerve to go to a wine tasting? We get it. Plenty of people are a bit intimidated at the thought of going to a winery tasting knowing that they could be surrounded by people saying things like, “I can taste the dirt in this,” or, “The tannins in this are impressive,” knowing that their chief inner narrative would be, “What’s a tannin?”
Good news, wine lovers. You don’t need to know a thing about tannins, acids, or vintage years to enjoy a wine tasting. The first rule to enjoying yourself is to throw out all the rules you think you need to know in order to enjoy a tasting experience. Wine is what the drinker makes of it, and everyone’s preferences are different. Here are six simple steps to enjoying a wine tasting, even if you’re unsure of whether to swish and spit or drink the whole glass.
Swirl & Sniff.
Put your glass on the table, hold the glass, and quickly turn it in a circular motion three to five times. By swirling the wine, it spreads the wine around the surface of the glass and will release the aromas. This is one of the richest and most complex steps of wine tasting. Put your nose inside the glass and take a deep sniff. Again, don’t worry about being right or wrong and let your instincts help you analyze what you smell. Not only will the aromas give you hints of what you will be tasting, but they will help train you for future tastings and help you hone in on your preferences. A full-bodied Cabernet will smell like plums and blackberries with hints of vanilla and toast. Chardonnay has a distinct and delicate bouquet of aromas that includes lemon, vanilla, and tropical fruit. It is often suggested to leave cologne and perfume at home as it can interfere with this step and confuse your sense of smell.
Swish & Spit or Swallow?
In this step, you want to decide if you want to swallow the wine or spit it out into a disposable cup. Many will opt for spitting the wine out if they are spending the day tasting and trying several varietals so that they do not confuse their palate and pace themselves on their alcohol intake.
Ask Questions. Some people may know the names of popular wine regions and showy grape blends. Most won’t. Both are OK. If you feel like the wine steward is speaking French when they rattle off the vineyard names, grape varieties, or flavors you should be looking for, feel free to stop them and ask for clarification. Winemakers love to talk about these things and often forget that not everyone knows their jargon. If you want to do a little research before your tasting, look into what the region is known for. Certain grape varieties, like Chardonnay, take on characteristics of the soil where they are grown, meaning that a Chardonnay in an area known for producing great Chardonnay could be quite memorable. A quick Google search should suffice.
Build a Budget.
The cost of a wine tasting will vary greatly. They can vary anywhere from complimentary to upwards of $50 per experience. It’s never a bad idea to ask about the cost – and what is included in that cost – before choosing which wineries you’ll visit. If you luck into a value-driven tasting, it’s considered polite to purchase a bottle at the end of the tasting.
Take Notes. It’s unrealistic for anyone to be expected to remember all of the details about five wines considered in such a small window of time. No one expects you to do that. It’s totally acceptable to ask for a pen and paper at the start of your experience (plenty of vineyards will even provide this without prompting) for you to jot down notes as you go. There is no “right” or “wrong” when it comes to what to write, either. It’s just as acceptable to write, “notes of raspberry” as it is to write, “yuck.” Your notes are used to help you remember what you liked, what you didn’t, and why.
Don’t plan on consuming solely wine during your experience. You should plan to drink water between the tastings, both to clear your palate as well as to keep you hydrated, as well as to consume small bites. Most wineries will provide a cheese board or nuts, but if they don’t, be sure to ask if you may order one. It highlights the flavor of the wine and keeps you from feeling woozy.
The rates for abdominoplasty vary depending on the how much needs to be done, mode of anesthesia and its charges, the clinical charges, the length of the stay in the clinic, the qualifications of the surgeon, the charges of the surgeon and the anesthetist among others.
Very high quotes, on the one hand, do not necessarily guarantee the best results and suspiciously low quotes, on the other hand, should invite caution. It is of utmost importance to always verify the qualifications and competencies of the plastic surgeon, his titles, his cv, his certification by the board, his ability to practice, what post-operation care is included in his quote (who by, where, for how long…).
Plastic surgery is strictly regulated in France.
It is therefore very easy to get information about a surgeon before undertaking this important surgery that involves the face.
Special offers! Save on our usual rates!
Temporary price offers: Please make your reservation before 31/01/2019. Rates do not include any VAT. Liposculpture belly intravenous sedation 1250 EUR 999 EUR Liposculpture lower stomach intravenous sedation 1250 EUR 999 EUR Liposculpture waist intravenous sedation 1250 EUR 999 EUR Show prices in Euro-US Dollar Pound sterling
Mini Tummy tuck
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An abdominal CT scan may be requested before surgery to evaluate the presence of any a hernia.
It is necessary to order, prior to surgery, an abdominal support girdle.
The procedure is usually performed under general anesthesia but may be considered on an outpatient basis for the mini-plasty. This requires a pre-anesthetic consultation at least 48 hours before surgery.
To perform a tummy tuck procedure, first general anesthesia is administered. For patients with large tummies, the surgeon will cut the abdomen horizontally between the hip bones and contour the abdominal muscles, skin, and tissues. The surgeon will place drainage tubes under the skin if required. Patients with fat deposits only below their navel will need a shorter and less complex procedure where the surgeon will make a smaller incision and perform key-hole surgery, inserting a small camera to see what needs to be done.
From December 2006 The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 1995 will be amended to place a duty on all public bodies to promote disability equality. This will affect all public bodies from local councils to government departments, to universities and hospitals.
Disability Equality Duty will require the public sector to actively promote disability equality. This is similar to the duty to promote race equality under the Race Relations (Amendment) Act.
This is a positive duty which builds in disability equality at the beginning of the process, rather than makes adjustments at the end. It will bring about a shift from a legal framework which relies on individual disabled people complaining about discrimination to one in which the public sector becomes a proactive agent of change.
How will the Duty be enforced?
In relation to the Specific Duty and those bodies who will have to produce a Disability Equality Scheme, the DRC (Disability Rights Commission) will have the power to issue compliance notices where it is satisfied that a public authority has failed to comply with its specific duties under the regulations, and can enforce the notices in the county or sheriff court.
How can we help?
At the heart of the Disability Equality Duty is the requirement to involve disabled people in producing the Disability Equality Scheme including the action plan. This has to happen at the very outset as many public authorities will have little experience of involving disabled people. We have been actively involved in writing such plans for our many DDA access audit clients including, The Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, Department of Works and Pensions (DWP) Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and Business Link to name a few.